On 13 March 2019 there was a Meetup about Interactive Video, organized by the Losmakers. An interactive video is a video where the viewer has to take action. He can choose how to proceed or answer questions. There were about 25 to 30 people from different organizations present, particularly interested in the application of interactive video in online learning. Using interactive video for learning has been around for a long time. Think of Philips CD-i and the interactive image plate. The U.S. Army used it during World War II. Due to the good video quality and the possible interactivity, training programs and training courses were already made and used in the 1990s, e.g. in the roll-out of new car models, but also for training personnel at waste treatment plants. Interactive video was considered particularly suitable in vocational education or training, in combination with more textual learning materials.
With the rise of the Internet, the quality of video a lot lower due to the limited bandwidth and took the application of video in the first instance. That problem hardly exists now. more and therefore the interest in using interactive video for training, training and learning have increased again. Partly due to the rise of new technologies such as 3D, 180 and 360 video and the relatively inexpensive equipment to create and deliver videos through accessible platforms.
In the last few years, tools have been added to create and deliver interactive videos online. This is mainly due to the rise of online video platforms such as Youtube and Vimeo. These platforms already include tools to make videos more interactive, such as creating Bookmarks.
Isabelle Langeveld (educational and educational technologist) gave an introduction on the use of multimedia in learning. The drawings in this blog are by her hand. Isabelle's contention is that if properly applied, i.e. taking into account learning psychological and educational principles (e.g. David Merrill's First Principles of Learning), the combination of video or generally multimedia material with text, questions and hotspots in a specific order has a positive effect on the learning effect and retention over a longer period of time and in addition the cognitive load (i.e. the intensive use of short-term memory) decreases.
From scientific research (e.g. Nassi &Amp; Callaway, 2009) shows that visual and spatial information processing is parallel while auditory and textual information processing via short-term memory is sequential. Because video already offers the right context, the cognitive load can be reduced and, as it were, the essential information to be learned is processed and stored in the right way, place and way. In other words, a more brain-friendly way of learning. By placing textual and auditory sequential information in the right audiovisual context. That is what is happening in reality, it is a more immersive, immersed way of learning in this case made possible and supported by technology.
An example of interactive video created in H5P
A valid comment from the audience was whether music or audio can also be meaningful or counterproductive. Of course, a distinction can be made between speech (voice-over), ambient sound (background sounds) and music (background music). The answer is that it can help provided that it is applied in a brain-friendly way, i.e. provided that it does not lead to an overload of working memory but is used to connect textual information and visual information by applying more context and also by clarifying the text (for reading text). This applies to a special extent to so-called accessible content, when students have, for example, a visual disability or, conversely, an auditory disability. In the latter case, it may also make sense to work with subtitles in addition to speech.
Every supplier present was given the opportunity to present and explain his product briefly. My explanation as an innovation consultant, including some large projects with interactive video and learning analytics, was about H5P (HTML5 Package). H5P is a complete web-based environment for creating immersive e-learning content. Comes from Norway and has been around for about 6 years. It is made to be very accessible, so anyone can use it effectively, both teachers and students. The intention is that many users will share and use knowledge and information. There are many possibilities to create e-learning content. Not only interactive video, but there are also many other possibilities. Interactive video is one of the content types that can be used to aggrrate content, i.e. an existing question can be added to a video or existing text, graphics and also video. It is now being applied in the Netherlands at Radboud University within a pilot for a year linked to their Brightspace LMS. The intention is that both teachers and students will contribute and share knowledge and skills. There are also two new content types, branching scenario, and virtual tour that can be applied in a different way to aggregate content. The four other tools in this evaluation are specific tools for creating only interactive video. In addition, the other four tools in the evaluation have a commercial model, while H5P is an open source project. However, there is a professional SAAS variant with SLA and processor agreement that meets the strictest requirements, which is used by larger organizations such as universities, companies and NGOs. In that case, the hosting takes place by the creator of H5P, Joubel, via Amazon servers. For example, for larger numbers of users, the performance of video is guaranteed.
Two group evaluation sessions took place. This looked at the interactions that can be made within videos, how user-friendly the tools are. And what exactly is the didactic added value, compared to a 'regular' video where you interactions before, next to or below? This was assessed within the model below (quality web)
It immediately becomes clear that H5P is made for user-friendliness both for creators (teachers, students, professionals) and for the end users (students, employees, stakeholders). The cost of H5P is low, both for the free version, which only requires a WordPress or Drupal server and for the professional version where one pays for the hosting for a specific number of users linked to the LMS and with built-in analysis tools and reports. In terms of functionality, H5P is very extensive in the field of interactive video. Hotspots and 9 question types or surveys can be added. Adaptive branching is possible, based on the answer to a question one jumps to a certain position in the video. The same goes for hotspots. The end result is offered in a user-friendly player with navigation and branching that can be seamlessly integrated within any website or LMS.
What's interesting to mention is that H5P also offers content types where interactive video can be aggregated or combined. For example, a branch where one jumps from one video to another in an adaptive learning path that can be followed with xAPI statements with Learning Analytics. Finally, it is interesting to mention that H5P also goes along with the current trend to be able to work with 360 degree content type, Augmented Learning. The so-called Virtual Tour supports 360 photos, where paths can easily be created to be able to walk around a building (such as a workshop, garage or factory) to create realistic scenarios. The next step in this will also be 360 video that can be viewed with VR glasses such as the Oculus Go or Google Cardboard glasses. The immersion goes a step further here.
The next Meetup will therefore be on the subject of Virtual Reality go. Interactive video recorded and played in 360 degrees is the first step. By the way, this content can also be laptops, tablets and smartphones.
Applications are in the field of sales training, onboarding, standard procedures, work instructions, product training, technical training, with an emphasis on bringing reality closer to education. H5P is the key to success. A number of visitors to the meetup have already come forward to see how they can use H5P to share and exchange knowledge with and for their target group faster, easier, better and more fun.
An important aspect is that interactive videos can be easily made in an online environment and can also be easily used in any learning environment (e.g. via LTI). In addition, a lot of relevant data is produced in interactive videos, much more than, for example, in regular e-learning content. And that in addition to the standard learning progress such as completion, score and success/success, it should also be possible to use and store all user data to immediately analyze or use further control for, for example, personalizing existing and new learning paths. This can be based on the Experience API that produces semantic data as Vera has pressed this Button (actor – verb – object data with context). For example, that was to answer a question in a quiz whether that was in a simulation of a nuclear power plant. In other words, interactive videos can also be used very well for generating data for Learning Analytics.